Custom Resolvers and Configuration

January 20, 2014

While working on a Custom Resolver, I needed to grab some configuration values. This seems fairly straightforward, and the documentation from SDL Tridion covers this. It states that we have to add a ConfigurationSection to the ‘Tridion.ContentManager.config’ file and that we can read these values using the following code:

private string SCHEMA_TITLES = 
Config.GetConfig("My.Tridion.CustomResolving", "schemaTitles");

It’s unclear where ‘Config.GetConfig’ comes from, but there’s more. The SDL Tridion Content Manager uses different services to resolve items to be published. The following SDL Tridion services use your Custom Resolver:

– TcmServiceHost
– TcmPublisher

The TcmServiceHost calls the resolver when a user clicks on the ‘Show Items to publish’ button in the ‘Publish’ popup.
The TcmPublisher calls the resolver when the item is actually published.
Both services have their own executable and their own configuration: TcmServiceHost.exe.config and TcmPublisher.exe.config (Located in the %Tridion_Home%\bin directory)

So, after adding the configuration for our custom resolver to the Tridion.ContentManager.config file I hooked up the debugger to the TcmPublisher and clicked ‘Publish’: no configuration values were found. Which makes perfect sense, since the TcmPublisher.exe uses the TcmPublisher.exe.config as its configuration source. The same is true for the TcmServiceHost: it uses the TcmServiceHost.exe.config as its configuration source.

How to solve this configuration issue?

Well, luckily both config files have a reference to the ‘Tridion.ContentManager.config’ file: (All Tridion Content Manager executables/services have a reference to this config file)

      <clear />
      <add filePath="D:\Program Files (x86)\Tridion\config\Tridion.ContentManager.config" />
      <add name="loggingConfiguration" />

So now, in your Custom Resolver it’s nothing more then loading the Tridion.ContentManager.config file to get our custom resolver configuration value(s):

The configuration in the Tridion.ContentManager.config’ is as follows (shortened):

<section name="My.Tridion.CustomResolving" type="System.Configuration.AppSettingsSection" />
	<add key="schemaTitles" value="FullArticleSchema" />

The type of the ConfigurationSection is ‘AppSettingsSection’. This is different from the documentation, but that doesn’t matter.
You can insert whatever section you like, as long as you update the code to get the ConfigurationSection. (Cast it to the correct type)

Have fun!


DD4T and caching

April 7, 2012

In this post I will try to describe the caching options that are available to you, to increase the responsiveness and the performance of your dynamic website build on top of the Dynamic Delivery for Tridion (DD4T) framework.

In a website build with DD4T (almost) all content comes from the Broker Database. The content is stored as an XML string in the database and is transformed (de-serialized) into .NET objects at request time. As you can image this has a huge impact on the performance of your website: on every request the XML is loaded (streamed) from the database and the DD4T framework de-serializes this into usable .NET objects.
This is a time-consuming process and puts a heavy load on your webserver.

Luckily there are a few options/strategies to improve the performance of your website. And the beauty about these options is that they (almost) come for free!

Output Caching

The first option is the out-of-the-box Output caching from ASP.NET.
Just decorate your controller (PageController, ComponentController; your choice) with the OutputCache attribute and your done!

[OutputCache(CacheProfile = "ControllerCache")]
public override System.Web.Mvc.ActionResult Page(string pageId)

And in your web.config you configure the duration of your ControllerCache:

<add name="ControllerCache" duration="3600" varyByParam="*"/>

OutputCache caches the output (…) for the duration you configured in the web.config. If the cache duration is set to 5 minutes, and in these 5 minutes you publish a page, the changes are NOT reflected in your browser if you hit F5. Only after 5 minutes the cache is invalided and on the next request the XML is loaded from the Broker Database. And de-serialized.

DD4T Caching

Luckily for us DD4T ships with a build in cache mechanism. This caching-mechanism is build on top of the .NET System Runtime Cache and can be used in conjunction with the Output Cache.

DD4T caching stores de-serialized objects like Components and Pages in the .NET Runtime cache after they are requested for the first time. Every consecutive request for that page/component loads it from the Object cache instead of loading it from the Broker database and de-serializing it into a .NET objects.
As you can imagine, this causes a massive performance improvement.

But how does DD4T ‘know’ when to invalidate the item in the cache? Because if you re-publish a page or component, you want your website to show the updated page/component.
The fact is that DD4T never knows when an item is republished, unless it ‘asks’ SDL Tridion for it. (Due to the fact that a website is stateless)
Well, this ‘asking’ is implemented in DD4T.

DD4T poll’s every x seconds/minutes/hours/etc (configurable) if the LastPublishDate from an item in the cache has changed. If it has changed (the item was republished) it will invalidate this item. The next time this item is requested, it will be loaded from the Broker databases, de-serialized and stored in the cache.

To configure how often DD4T needs to check the LastPublishDate of the items in the cache, use this setting in your web.config (value must be in seconds)

 <add key="CacheSettings_CallBackInterval" value="30"/>

In this example, DD4T poll’s the Broker Database every 30 seconds to check if the items in the cache are still valid.

Also, after a configurable amount of time, the item is -no matter what- invalidated. The amount of time can be configured separately for pages and components.
Use the following configuration settings to accomplish this:

<add key="DD4T.CacheSettings.Page" value="3600"/>
<add key="DD4T.CacheSettings.Component" value="3600"/>

In this example all the pages and components in the cache are invalidated after 1 hour.

SDL Tridion Object cache

SDL Tridion comes with a caching solution called ‘Object cache’. To quote the documentation, this is what it does:

To improve the performance of your Web site, you can choose to store the most commonly used or resource-intensive objects from your Content Data Store in a cache. The cache keeps these objects available for the applications that request them, rather than reinitializing them each time they are requested.

Pretty obvious right? So no need to explain it further.
Read the documentation here. (Login required)

More information about the SDL Tridion Object cache:

Finale notes

As we have discussed, there are 3 caching options available out of the box. Used them when needed, and tweak them according to your needs.

A very nice post about caching (and the performance you gain) with a SDL Tridion driven website was written by Nuno Linhares. Read it here: Tridion Content Delivery and Caching

I hope I gave you some information about caching in a dynamic (DD4T driven) website on top of SDL Tridion to get you started.

DD4T Continued: rendering component presentations

January 20, 2012

In my previous post I discussed how to get started with ASP.NET MVC3 and Tridion using the opensource DD4T framework.
In this post I want to show you how DD4T handles the rendering of ComponentPresentations on a page.

In my previous example, the whole HTML of the (Tridion)page was rendered by only 1 (razor)view. This is not a desired scenario, because it leads to big views and re-use is almost impossible.
Tridion handles this quite nicely by using Component Templates. These templates are responsible for rendering their own little piece of content. And this is exactly what you want in your webapplication.

So, how to implement this using the DD4T framework? Lets find out by creating a simple page.

First, create a page in Tridion with 2 (or more) ComponentPresentations and publish the page. (Make sure your Component Templates are DD4T templates and have a metadatafield called ‘view’ with the name of an existing view in it!. See my previous post on how to create a DD4T Component/Page Template)

DD4T needs to know which (default) Controller to use. This needs to be configured in your Web.config. Add the following 2 lines of code in your Web.config:

    <!-- Config values for the DefaultComponentPresentationRenderer-->
<add key="Controller" value="TridionComponent"/>
<add key="Action" value="Component"/>

Next, we have to write some code to handle the rendering of the ComponentPresentations.
1. Create a new controller and name it ‘TridionComponentController’.
2. Add the following code in this controller:

using System.Web.Mvc;
using DD4T.Mvc.Controllers;
using DD4T.ContentModel;

namespace Sample_WebApplication.Controllers
    public class TridionComponentController : TridionControllerBase

        public ActionResult Component(ComponentPresentation componentPresentation)
            return base.ComponentPresentation(componentPresentation.Component.Id);

This controller is used to render each ComponentPresentation on a page. The TridionControllerBase class reads the metadata from each ComponentPresentation to find out which razorview to use. The result of the Action-method is a rendered componentpresentation.

Now, create a folder ‘TridionComponent’ in the ‘Views’ folder, and create a new razoriew. Give this view the same name as you defined in the metadata of your ComponentTemplate. So, in my case that is ‘Article’.
Add your HTML to this new View. My Article view looks like this:

@using DD4T.ContentModel;
@using DD4T.Mvc.Html;
@model IComponentPresentation

Component title: @Model.Component.Title


Now we have to adjust our main view to NOT render the ComponentPresentations inline, but to use our new controller and the DD4T ‘ComponentPresentation’ Action method.
Open your Page view (In the folder TridionPage, General.cshtml) and add the following code:

@using DD4T.ContentModel;
@using DD4T.Mvc.Html;
@model IPage

Some info about this page:<br />
Filename: @Model.Filename<br />
Title: @Model.Title<br />
Publication Title: @Model.Publication.Title<br />

<h2>ComponentPresentations on this page</h2>

Notice the @Html.RenderComponentPresentations()? This is a HTML helper from the DD4T framework that renders all the componentpresentations on the page, using our newly created ‘TridionComponentController’.

This ‘RenderComponentPresentation’ HTML helper renders ALL the ComponentPresentations, but often you only want to render certain ComponentPresentations. For instance, you want to render ‘Banner’ components in another section on your page then your ‘Article’ elements.
This can be achieved by using one of the overloads from the ‘RenderComponentPresentations’ HTML helper.

To only render ComponentPresentations that are based on a certain schema, you can use this code:


To render ComponentPresentations based on a certain ComponentTemlate, you can use this code:


Or, if you want to render ComponentPresentations based on multiple ComponentTemplates, you can use this code:

 @Html.RenderComponentPresentationsByView(new[] {"Article", "FullArticle" })

I hope this helped you to understand how ComponentPresentations are handled by the DD4T .NET framework.
Let me know if you have more questions or problems using the above code.

Getting started with ASP.NET MVC3 and Tridion

December 13, 2011


In this post I am going to explain how to set up and use the Dynamic Delivery For Tridion Framework. If you haven’t heared of this framework check out this site:
In short: Dynamic Delivery For Tridion (DD4T) is an ASP.NET MVC3 framework specifically designed to build a web(site) application using SDL Tridion.

1. Visual Studio 2010 (With Entity Framework 4.1 installed and MVC3)
2. SDL Tridion 2011 Content Management Server
3. SDL Tridion 2011 Content Delivery Instance
(The DD4T Framework also supports SDL Tridion 2009. But in this post I use SDL Tridion 2011)

Also make sure that you are publishing everything to the Tridion Broker Database. (You can configure this in the cd_storage_conf.xml)

High level overview

For a highlevel overview of the framework, check out this url:

To get your website up and running using the DD4T framework, the following steps are needed:

  1. Upload the Dynamic Delivery Template Building Blocks to your Content Management Server
  2. Create Component Templates and Page Templates using the Dynamic Delivery Template Building Blocks
  3. Create a webapplication that uses the DD4T DLL’s to show your published page

Getting started

Download the sources from
(Use a SVN Client like TortoiseSvn in combination with a Visual Studio plugin like AnkhSvn)

The sources contain the Java version and the .NET MVC3 version of the project. We are only interested in the .NET MVC3 version of the framework.

Template Building Blocks

First, we have to upload the Template Building Blocks to the Tridion Content Management Server.
Check out this WIKI page on how to upload the templates

Component Templates and Page Templates

Once you uploaded the Template Building Blocks, you can use these to create Page- and Component Templates. To create a Component Template, open up the Templatebuilder tool and create a new Component Template. Drag and drop the following (DD4T) Building Blocks on your template:

  • Generate dynamic component
  • Publish binaries for component

Also, create a Page Template with the following (DD4T) Building Blocks:

  • Generate dynamic page
  • Publish binaries for page

Next, create a simple meta-data schema with one single line text (Preferably it’s a selectlist with values from a category) for usage on the newly created Component- and Page Template.
This schema allows you to tell the DD4T framework which View (visual representation, ASP.NET MVC3 Razor template) to use when this Page/Component is rendered in the browser.
Xml name of the field should be ‘view’.

Component Template for Articles, using the View ‘Article’:

Do the same for the Page Template: Give it a metadata-schema, with one field called ‘view’ and insert which view to use in the framework:

Visual Studio Projects setup

Open up Visual Studio and create new project of type ‘ASP.NET MVC3 Web Application’ (Make sure you are using the Razor view engine)

Next, we are going to add some projects (dll’s) from the just downloaded DD4T framework. Choose from the ‘File’ menu for ‘Add’ -> ‘Existing Project’. Add the following DD4T projects to your solution:

  • DD4T.ContentModel
  • DD4T.ContentModel.Contracts
  • DD4T.Factories
  • DD4T.Mvc
  • DD4T.Providers.SDLTridion2011 (Or DD4T.Providers.SDLTridion2009 if you are using SDL Tridion 2009)

Your solution looks something like this:

Remark: in a real life application you don’t want hard references to all these dlls. You want to load the dependencies by means of Dependency Injection (Unity, MEF, etc)
Next, we have to copy some Tridion dll’s into the following folder: %DD4T Install Path%\dependencies\Tridion 2011 DLLs. In here you find a file called ‘Missing files’. Read it, and copy-paste all the Tridion Dll’s into this folder.
Now, add all the DD4T projects as a reference to your MvcApplication. Your solution should build fine now.

The DD4T framework uses the web.config to find out from which publication to request content. Add the following 2 keys to the web.config. (Of course, fill in your publication id)

<add key="Site.ActiveWebsite" value="Corporate.En"/>
<add key="WebSite.Corporate.En.PublicationId" value="7"/>

Writing *some* code

Now we have added all the necessary framework parts, it’s time to wire up our first controller so we can view our page in the browser. Luckily for us, the DD4T framework has already done a lot for us. Al we have to do is to use the right methods and classes!
If you aren’t familiar with the .NET MVC pattern, this is roughly how it looks like:

  1. Url is typed into the browser
  2. Request is fired to the webserver and our webapplication. It goes through a ‘rout-engine’ (Global.asax) to find out what to do with this url (request)
  3. This route-engine looks at the url and based on the parts of the url it sends it to a controller
  4. The controller builds up the Model and passes this model on to the View
  5. The (razor)View renders the HTML and pushes the output back to the browser

First step is adding a rule to the Global.asax that makes sure that (for now) all requests are handled by the same controller. Add the following code to the ‘RegisterRoutes’ method from the Global.asax:

               "TridionPage", // Route name
               new { controller = "TridionPage", action = "Page" }, //Parameter defaults
               new { pageId = @"^(.*)?$" } //Parameter constraints

This makes sure that every request is passed on to the TridionPageController.

Time to make the TridionPageController! Go to your MvcApplication and create a new controller. Right click on the ‘Controller’ folder in the solution explorer and choose ‘Add’-> ‘Controller’.
Name it: TridionPageController

By default all controllers from ASP.NET MVC inherit from the Microsoft Controller class. We don’t want this. We want to inherit from the TridionControllerBase class from the DD4T.Mvc project.
Make sure your TridionPageController inherits from the TridionControllerBase:

public class TridionPageController : TridionControllerBase
        public TridionPageController()
            this.PageFactory = new DD4T.Factories.PageFactory();
            this.PageFactory.PageProvider = new DD4T.Providers.SDLTridion2011.TridionPageProvider();

Remark about the above code: The factories and providers are created here for simplicity. In a real world scenario you don’t want to do this, but you want to load the Factories and Providers by means of Dependency Injection (Unity, MEF, etc). But for now it’s ok.

The TridionControllerBase defines a set of useful methods. We want our controller to look up the page (url) we requested in the browser from the Tridion Broker Database. Normally you would write code, using the Tridion dll’s to retrieve the Pagecontent from the Tridion Broker Database yourself, but the DD4T framework has already done this for us.

Add the following code to the TridionPageController:

public override ActionResult Page(string pageId)
    return base.Page(pageId);

This method retrieves the PageContent from the Tridion Broker Database by finding the Page by it’s Url (pageId = Url). So, make sure you published a page to the Tridion Broker Database using the DD4T Templates!

The View

The ‘Page’ method returns *something*, but we have to define of course how that ‘something’ needs to be visualed. In other words: we need to create a (razor) view.
ASP.NET MVC3 uses a pattern to find the right View to visualize this page and it uses (among others) the name of the Controller to find the view. So, in the ‘Views’ folder, create a new folder
‘TridionPage’. In here we have to define the View. Remeber the metadata schema we made for Component- and Page Templates? Well, your Pagetemplate has this metadata on it, and you gave it a meaningfull name. I named mine ‘General’. So I have to create a view named ‘General’. Here is how my folder structure looks like:

Views contain the HTML. Here we define how our page looks like. One of the advantages of the DD4T Framwork is, that you can have strongly typed views. This means that you tell your View that he (she) needs to render HTML for object of type IPage or IComponent or String (not very usefull) or MyArticleObject, etc. This gives you full intellisense when writing your View.

Your view needs to render the HTML for an IPage object. (IPage object comes from the DD4T Framework).
Add the following code to your view:

@using DD4T.ContentModel;
@model IPage</pre>
    Some info about this page:

    Filename: @Model.Filename

    Title: @Model.Title

    Publication Title: @Model.Publication.Title

Component presentations on this page:</pre>
<ul>foreach (IComponentPresentation cp in Model.ComponentPresentations)</ul>

ASP.NET automatically wires up the properties from the IPage to the ‘Model’ keyword because we told this View that he (she) is destined to render HTML for an IPage object. (The ‘@model IPage’ directive).

And now: RUN! (F5)
Make sure you are requesting an Url that is published to the Tridion Broker Database 🙂

I hope this gives you enough information to get started with the DD4T Framework. The framework is actively developed and it is already running live in at least one big financial organisation.
So far everything runs just fine 🙂

Disclaimer:This example is provided as is and is simplified for the obvious reasons.